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{ITEM-100%-1-1}Und warum ist die Kategorie Astronomen so wichtig? März und am Bis dahin hatte es kein klar definiertes Unterscheidungsmerkmal zwischen Planeten und Asteroiden gegeben. Uranus und Neptun werden auch Eisriesen genannt. Manche Astrologen berücksichtigen auch Ceres und andere der kleineren Objekte des Sonnensystems. It's a place for your daily fitness dose from the hands of expert fitness trainers, in a cool and relaxing ambience. Wegen der Erhaltung des Drehimpulses kollabiert dieser Gasball zu einem linsenartigen Gebilde. Ein internationales Forscherteam präsentiert in einem Fachmagazin eine höchst ungewöhnliche Entdeckung: Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Die Ergebnisse werden auf der Projekt-Website veröffentlicht. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Sie hat uns mit Silber belohnt. Labors der Goldenen Technik.{/ITEM}

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Polygonal shapes have been replicated in the laboratory through differential rotation of fluids. HST imaging of the south polar region indicates the presence of a jet stream , but no strong polar vortex nor any hexagonal standing wave.

For example, images from the Galileo spacecraft did not show an eyewall in the Great Red Spot of Jupiter. The south pole storm may have been present for billions of years.

Cassini observed a series of cloud features nicknamed "String of Pearls" found in northern latitudes.

These features are cloud clearings that reside in deeper cloud layers. Saturn has an intrinsic magnetic field that has a simple, symmetric shape — a magnetic dipole.

Its strength at the equator — 0. The average distance between Saturn and the Sun is over 1. With an average orbital speed of 9. Astronomers use three different systems for specifying the rotation rate of Saturn.

A precise value for the rotation period of the interior remains elusive. An apparent oddity for Saturn is that it does not have any known trojan asteroids.

Trojan asteroids have been discovered for Mars, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune. Orbital resonance mechanisms, including secular resonance , are believed to be the cause of the missing Saturnian trojans.

Saturn has 62 known moons , 53 of which have formal names. Many of the other moons are small: Titan is the only satellite in the Solar System with a major atmosphere , [91] [92] in which a complex organic chemistry occurs.

It is the only satellite with hydrocarbon lakes. Saturn is probably best known for the system of planetary rings that makes it visually unique.

There are two main hypotheses regarding the origin of the rings. One hypothesis is that the rings are remnants of a destroyed moon of Saturn.

The second hypothesis is that the rings are left over from the original nebular material from which Saturn formed. This abundance variance may be explained by meteor bombardment.

Some of the moons of Saturn, including Pandora and Prometheus , act as shepherd moons to confine the rings and prevent them from spreading out.

The observation and exploration of Saturn can be divided into three main phases. The first era was ancient observations such as with the naked eye , before the invention of the modern telescopes.

Starting in the 17th century, progressively more advanced telescopic observations from Earth have been made. The third phase is visitation by space probes , by either orbiting or flyby.

In the 21st century, observations continue from Earth including Earth-orbiting observatories like the Hubble Space Telescope and, until its retirement , from the Cassini orbiter around Saturn.

Saturn has been known since prehistoric times [] and in early recorded history it was a major character in various mythologies. Babylonian astronomers systematically observed and recorded the movements of Saturn.

Saturn is known as " Shani " and judges everyone based on the good and bad deeds performed in life. This was based on Five Elements which were traditionally used to classify natural elements.

Iapetus , Rhea , Tethys and Dione. In , Cassini discovered the gap now known as the Cassini Division. No further discoveries of significance were made until when William Herschel discovered two further moons, Mimas and Enceladus.

The irregularly shaped satellite Hyperion , which has a resonance with Titan, was discovered in by a British team.

In William Henry Pickering discovered Phoebe, a highly irregular satellite that does not rotate synchronously with Saturn as the larger moons do.

Images were taken of the planet and a few of its moons, although their resolution was too low to discern surface detail.

In addition, Pioneer 11 measured the temperature of Titan. In November , the Voyager 1 probe visited the Saturn system.

It sent back the first high-resolution images of the planet, its rings and satellites. Surface features of various moons were seen for the first time.

Voyager 1 performed a close flyby of Titan, increasing knowledge of the atmosphere of the moon. Almost a year later, in August , Voyager 2 continued the study of the Saturn system.

The Cassini—Huygens space probe entered orbit around Saturn on 1 July In June , it conducted a close flyby of Phoebe , sending back high-resolution images and data.

The orbiter completed two Titan flybys before releasing the Huygens probe on 25 December Huygens descended onto the surface of Titan on 14 January Starting in early , scientists used Cassini to track lightning on Saturn.

The source of this ring is hypothesized to be the crashing of a meteoroid off Janus and Epimetheus. In March , hydrocarbon seas were found near the North pole, the largest of which is almost the size of the Caspian Sea.

From to 2 November , the probe discovered and confirmed eight new satellites. The continued exploration of Saturn is still considered to be a viable option for NASA as part of their ongoing New Frontiers program of missions.

Saturn is the most distant of the five planets easily visible to the naked eye from Earth, the other four being Mercury , Venus , Mars and Jupiter.

Uranus and occasionally 4 Vesta are visible to the naked eye in dark skies. Saturn appears to the naked eye in the night sky as a bright, yellowish point of light.

The mean apparent magnitude of Saturn is 0. Most of the magnitude variation is due to the inclination of the ring system relative to the Sun and Earth.

The brightest magnitude, Such a "disappearance" will next occur in , but Saturn will be too close to the Sun for any ring-crossing observation to be possible.

A Saturnian opposition occurs every year—approximately every days—and results in the planet appearing at its brightest. Both the Earth and Saturn orbit the Sun on eccentric orbits, which means their distances from the Sun vary over time, and therefore so do their distances from each other, hence varying the brightness of Saturn from one opposition to the next.

Saturn also appears brighter when the rings are angled such that they are more visible. For example, during the opposition of 17 December , Saturn appeared at its brightest due to a favorable orientation of its rings relative to the Earth, [] even though Saturn was closer to the Earth and Sun in late From time to time Saturn is occulted by the Moon that is, the Moon covers up Saturn in the sky.

As with all the planets in the Solar System, occultations of Saturn occur in "seasons". Saturnian occultations will take place 12 or more times over a month period, followed by about a five-year period in which no such activity is registered.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Saturn disambiguation. Sixth planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

Pictured in natural color approaching equinox , photographed by Cassini in July The dot in the bottom left corner is Titan.

Moment of inertia factor. The rings of Saturn imaged here by Cassini in are the most massive and conspicuous in the Solar System.

Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 13 August Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 18 January Explicit use of et al.

Archived from the original PDF on 14 October Retrieved 14 October Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 21 July Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere".

Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 7 July The Rosen Publishing Group. Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 2 August In Dougherty, Michele K.

Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 19 July This undiscovered super-Earth -sized planet would have a predicted mass of ten times the Earth , a diameter two to four times the Earth, and an elongated orbit lasting 10,—20, years.

Brown suggest that Planet Nine could be the core of a giant planet that was ejected from its original orbit by Jupiter during the genesis of the Solar System.

As of , no observation of Planet Nine had been announced. Following the discovery of Neptune in , there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit.

These theories predicted the existence of a planet, often referred to as Planet X. The Planet Nine hypothesis predicts a specific planet of a certain size and with certain orbital characteristics that are different from past theories.

Attempts to detect planets beyond Neptune by indirect means such as orbital perturbation date back to before the discovery of Pluto.

George Forbes was the first to postulate the existence of trans-Neptunian planets in , and his work is considered similar to more recent Planet Nine theories.

George Forbes proposed that there were two distant planets. One would have an average distance from the Sun, or semi-major axis , of astronomical units AU , time that of the Earth.

The second would have a semimajor axis of AU. His proposed planets would be responsible for a clustering of the aphelion distances of periodic comets similar to that of the Jupiter-family comets.

Various authors proposed that Sedna entered this orbit after encountering an unknown planet on a distant orbit, a member of the open cluster that formed with the Sun, or another star that later passed near the Solar System.

At a conference in Rodney Gomes proposed that an undetected planet was responsible for the orbits of some eTNOs with detached orbits and the large semi-major axis Centaurs , small Solar System bodies that cross the orbits of the giant planets.

Like Planet Nine it would cause the perihelia of objects with semi-major axes greater than AU to oscillate, delivering some into planet-crossing orbits and others into detached orbits like that of Sedna.

In an article by Gomes, Soares, and Brasser was published detailing their arguments. In astronomers Chad Trujillo and Scott S.

They proposed that an unknown planet in a circular orbit between and AU was perturbing their orbits. Planet Nine is hypothesized to follow a highly elliptical orbit around the Sun with a period lasting 10,—20, years.

The planet is estimated to have 10 times the mass of Earth, [18] [32] and a diameter of 26, to 52, km, or two to four times that of Earth.

Brown speculates that the predicted planet is most probably an ejected ice giant , similar in composition to Uranus and Neptune: A number of possible origins for Planet Nine have been examined including its ejection from the neighborhood of the known giant planets, capture from another star, and in situ formation.

In their initial article, Batygin and Brown proposed that Planet Nine formed closer to the Sun and was ejected into a distant eccentric orbit following a close encounter with Jupiter or Saturn during the nebular epoch.

This raised its perihelion, leaving it in a very wide but stable orbit beyond the influence of the other planets.

Recent models propose that a 60— Earth mass disk of planetesimals could have formed as the gas was cleared from the outer parts of the proto-planetary disk.

This would lower the eccentricity of Planet Nine and stabilize its orbit. Unlike the gas nebula, the planetesimal disk is likely to have been long lived, potentially allowing a later capture.

Planet Nine could have been captured from outside the Solar System during a close encounter between the Sun and another star.

A planet originating in a system without Jupiter-massed planets could remain in a distant eccentric orbit for a longer time, increasing its chances of capture.

An encounter with another star could also alter the orbit of a distant planet, shifting it from a circular to an eccentric orbit.

The in situ formation of a planet at this distance would require a very massive and extensive disk, [1] or the outward drift of solids in a dissipating disk forming a narrow ring from which the planet accreted over a billion years.

The gravitational influence of Planet Nine would explain five peculiarities of the Solar System: Planet Nine was initially proposed to explain the clustering of orbits, via a mechanism that would also explain the high perihelia of objects like Sedna.

While other mechanisms have been offered for many of these peculiarities, the gravitational influence of Planet Nine is the only one that explains all five.

However, the gravity of Planet Nine would also increase the inclinations of other objects that cross its orbit, leaving the short-period comets with a broader inclination distribution than is observed.

The clustering of the orbits of TNOs with large semi-major axes was first described by Trujillo and Sheppard, who noted similarities between the orbits of Sedna and VP Without the presence of Planet Nine, these orbits should be distributed randomly, without preference for any direction.

Trujillo and Sheppard proposed that this alignment was caused by a massive unknown planet beyond Neptune via the Kozai mechanism.

Batygin and Brown, looking to refute the mechanism proposed by Trujillo and Sheppard, also examined the orbits of the TNOs with large semi-major axes.

Batygin and Brown also found that the orbits of the six eTNOs with semi-major axes greater than AU and perihelia beyond 30 AU Sedna, VP , VN , GB , TG , and RF 98 were aligned in space with their perihelia in roughly the same direction, resulting in a clustering of their longitudes of perihelion , the location where they make their closest approaches to the Sun.

The orbits of the six objects were also tilted with respect to that of the ecliptic and approximately coplanar , producing a clustering of their longitudes of ascending nodes , the directions where they each rise through the ecliptic.

They determined that there was only a 0. That made it less likely that the clumping might be due to an observation bias such as pointing a telescope at a particular part of the sky.

The observed clustering should be smeared out in a few hundred million years due to the locations of the perihelia and the ascending nodes changing, or precessing , at differing rates due to their varied semi-major axes and eccentricities.

In a later article Trujillo and Sheppard noted a correlation between the longitude of perihelion and the argument of perihelion of the TNOs with semi-major axes greater than AU.

The statistical significance of this correlation was They suggested that the correlation is due to the orbits of these objects avoiding close approaches to a massive planet by passing above or below its orbit.

The clustering of the orbits of eTNOs and raising of their perihelia is reproduced in simulations that include Planet Nine. In simulations conducted by Batygin and Brown, swarms of objects with large semi-major axes [E] that began with random orientations were sculpted into roughly collinear and coplanar groups of spatially confined orbits by a massive distant planet in a highly eccentric orbit.

The objects perihelia tended to point in the same direction and the objects orbits tended to align in the same plane. Many of these objects entered high perihelion orbits like Sedna and, unexpectedly, some entered perpendicular orbits that Batygin and Brown later noticed had been previously observed.

Little effect is found on objects with semi-major axes less than AU. These orbits yield varied results.

Batygin and Brown found that orbits of the eTNOs were more likely have similar tilts if Planet Nine had a higher inclination, but anti-alignment also decreased.

The discovery of additional distant Solar System objects may provide further support for, or refutation of, the Planet Nine hypothesis.

Planet Nine modifies the orbits of eTNOs via a combination of effects. The resulting exchanges of angular momentum cause the perihelia to rise, placing them in Sedna-like orbits, and later fall, returning them to their original orbits after several hundred million years.

The motion of their directions of perihelion also reverses when their eccentricities are small, keeping the objects anti-aligned, see blue curves on diagram, or aligned, red curves.

This results in a chaotic variation of semi-major axes as objects hop between resonances, including high order resonances such as This causes orbital poles of the eTNOs on average to be tilted toward one side and their longitudes of ascending nodes to be clustered.

Planet Nine can deliver eTNOs into orbits roughly perpendicular to the ecliptic. The resonance causes their eccentricities and inclinations to increase, delivering the eTNOs into perpendicular orbits with low perihelia where they are more readily observed.

The eTNOs then evolve into retrograde orbits with lower eccentricities, after which they pass through a second phase of high eccentricity perpendicular orbits, before returning to low eccentricity and inclination orbits.

Unlike the Kozai mechanism this resonance causes objects to reach their maximum eccentricities when in nearly perpendicular orbits.

A population of high inclination TNOs with semi-major axes less than AU may be generated by the combined effects of Planet Nine and the other giant planets.

The eTNOs that enter perpendicular orbits have perihelia low enough for their orbits to intersect those of Neptune or the other giant planets.

The predicted orbital distribution of the longest lived of these objects is nonuniform. Most would have orbits with perihelia ranging from 5 AU to 35 AU and inclinations below degree; beyond a gap with few objects are would be others with inclinations near degrees and perihelia near 10 AU.

Planet Nine would alter the source regions and the inclination distribution of comets. In simulations of the migration of the giant planets described by the Nice model fewer objects are captured in the Oort cloud when Planet Nine is included.

Other objects would be captured in a cloud of objects dynamically controlled by Planet Nine. If Planet Nine exists these would make up roughly one third of the Halley-type comets.

This would increases the inclinations of the Jupiter-family comets derived from that population leaving them with a broader inclination distribution than is observed.

Models of the formation of the Solar System predict that the planets and the Sun should rotate in the same plane. These observations are consistent with the Planet Nine hypothesis but do not prove that Planet Nine exists because there are other potential explanations [J] for the spin—orbit misalignment of the Solar System.

All we have now is an echo. The Planet Nine hypothesis is supported by several astronomers and academics. Astronomer Renu Malhotra remains agnostic about Planet Nine, but noted that she and her colleagues have found that the orbits of eTNOs seem tilted in a way that is difficult to otherwise explain.

Other authorities have varying degrees of skepticism. American astrophysicist Ethan Siegel , who is deeply skeptical of the existence of an undiscovered planet in the Solar System, nevertheless speculates that at least one super-Earth, which have been commonly discovered in other planetary systems but have not been discovered in the Solar System, might have been ejected from the Solar System during a dynamical instability in the early Solar System.

He found that after observing biases were accounted for the clustering of longitudes of perihelion of 10 known eTNOs would be observed only 1.

When combined with the odds of the observed clustering of the arguments of perihelion the probability was 0.

Simulations of 15 known objects evolving under the influence of Planet Nine also revealed a number of differences with observations. Their simulations also showed that the perihelia of the eTNOs rose and fell smoothly, leaving many with perihelion distances between 50 AU and 70 AU where none had been observed, and predicted that there would be many other unobserved objects.

Many of the objects were also ejected from the Solar System after encountering the other giant planets. The large unobserved populations and the loss of many objects led Shankman et al.

Ann-Marie Madigan and Michael McCourt postulate that an inclination instability in a distant massive belt is responsible for the alignment of the arguments of perihelion of the eTNOs.

The self-gravity of this disk would cause its spontaneous organization, increasing the inclinations of the objects and aligning the arguments of perihelion, forming it into a cone above or below the original plane.

Antranik Sefilian and Jihad Touma propose that a massive disk of moderately eccentric TNOs is responsible for the clustering of the longitudes of perihelion of the eTNOs.

Their predicted 10 Earth-mass disk would contain TNOs with aligned orbits and eccentricities that increased with their semimajor axes ranging from zero to 0.

The gravitational effects of this disk would offset the forward precession driven by the giant planets so that the orbital orientations of its individual objects are maintained.

The orbits of objects with high eccentricities, such as the observed eTNOs, would be stable and have roughly fixed orientations, or longitudes of perihelion, if their orbits were anti-aligned with this disk.

The Planet Nine hypothesis includes a set of predictions about the mass and orbit of the planet. An alternative theory predicts a planet with different orbital parameters.

The eccentricity is limited in this case by the requirement that close approaches of GB to the planet are avoided.

Unlike Batygin and Brown, Malhotra, Volk and Wang do not specify that most of the distant detached objects would have orbits anti-aligned with the massive planet.

Trujillo and Sheppard argued in that a massive planet in a distant, circular orbit was responsible for the clustering of the arguments of perihelion of twelve TNOs with large semi-major axes.

These simulations showed the basic idea of how a single large planet can shepherd the smaller TNOs into similar types of orbits.

It was a basic proof of concept simulation that did not obtain a unique orbit for the planet as they state there are many possible orbital configurations the planet could have.

Aarseth confirmed that the observed alignment of the arguments of perihelion could not be due to observational bias.

Due to its extreme distance from the Sun, Planet Nine would reflect little sunlight, potentially evading telescope sightings.

At aphelion, the largest telescopes would be required. However, if the planet is currently located in between, many observatories could spot Planet Nine.

The search in databases of stellar objects performed by Batygin and Brown has already excluded much of the sky the predicted planet could be in, save the direction of its aphelion, or in the difficult to spot backgrounds where the orbit crosses the plane of the Milky Way , where most stars lie.

Other researchers have been conducting searches of existing data. David Gerdes who helped develop the camera used in the Dark Energy Survey claims that it is quite possible that one of the images taken for his galaxy map may actually contain a picture of Planet Nine, and if so, purpose-built software, which was used to identify objects such as UZ , can help to find it.

Using a supercomputer they will offset the images to account for the calculated motion of Planet Nine, allowing many faint images of a faint moving object to be combined to produce a brighter image.

This search covered regions of the sky away from the galactic plane at the "W1" wavelength the 3. Because the planet is predicted to be visible in the Northern Hemisphere , the primary search is expected to be carried out using the Subaru Telescope , which has both an aperture large enough to see faint objects and a wide field of view to shorten the search.

A zone around the constellation Cetus , where Cassini data suggest Planet Nine may be located, is being searched as of [update] by the Dark Energy Survey —a project in the Southern Hemisphere designed to probe the acceleration of the Universe.

Although a distant planet such as Planet Nine would reflect little light, it would still be radiating the heat from its formation as it cools due to its large mass.

The project will additionally search for substellar objects like brown dwarfs in the neighborhood of the Solar System.

By looking for moving objects in the animations, citizen scientists might find Planet Nine. In April , [] using data from the SkyMapper telescope at Siding Spring Observatory , citizen scientists on the Zooniverse platform reported four candidates for Planet Nine.

These candidates will be followed up on by astronomers to determine their viability. Batygin and Brown also predict a yet-to-be-discovered population of distant objects.

The larger perihelia of these objects would make them fainter and more difficult to detect than the anti-aligned objects.

An improved mathematical analysis of Cassini data by astrophysicists Matthew Holman and Matthew Payne tightened the constraints on possible locations of Planet Nine.

Holman and Payne developed a more efficient model that allowed them to explore a broader range of parameters than the previous analysis.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has stated that according to their mission managers and orbit determination experts, the Cassini spacecraft is not experiencing unexplained deviations in its orbit around Saturn.

William Folkner, a planetary scientist at JPL stated, "An undiscovered planet outside the orbit of Neptune, 10 times the mass of Earth, would affect the orbit of Saturn, not Cassini This could produce a signature in the measurements of Cassini while in orbit about Saturn if the planet was close enough to the Sun.

But we do not see any unexplained signature above the level of the measurement noise in Cassini data taken from to Holman and Matthew J.

Holman and Payne suggested three possible explanations: An analysis by Sarah Millholland and Gregory Laughlin indicates that the commensurabilities period ratios consistent with pairs of objects in resonance with each other of the eTNOs are most likely to occur if Planet Nine has a semi-major axis of AU.

They used 11 then-known eTNOs with their semi-major axis over , and perihelion over 30 AU [1] , with five bodies close to four simple ratios 5: They also note that in their simulations the clustering of arguments of perihelion is almost always smaller than has been observed.

A previous analysis by Carlos and Raul de la Fuente Marcos of commensurabilities among the known eTNOs using the Monte Carlo method revealed a pattern similar to that of the Kuiper belt, where accidental commensurabilities occur due to objects in resonances with Neptune.

They find that this pattern would be best explained if the eTNOs were in resonance with an additional planetary-sized object beyond Pluto and note that a number of these objects may be in 5: In an article by Carlos and Raul de la Fuente Marcos evidence is shown for a possible bimodal distribution of the distances to the ascending nodes of the eTNOs.

This correlation is unlikely to be the result of observational bias since it also appears in the nodal distribution of Centaurs and comets with large semi-major axes.

Similarities between the orbits of RF 98 and VN have led to the suggestion that they were a binary object disrupted near aphelion during an encounter with a distant object.

The visible spectra of VN and RF 98 are also similar but very different from that of Sedna. The value of their spectral slopes suggests that the surfaces of VN and RF 98 can have pure methane ices like Pluto , highly processed carbon compounds and some amorphous silicates.

Planet Nine does not have an official name and will not receive one unless its existence is confirmed, typically through optical imaging. Once confirmed, the International Astronomical Union will certify a name, with priority usually given to a name proposed by its discoverers.

In their original article, Batygin and Brown simply referred to the object as "perturber", [1] and only in later press releases did they use "Planet Nine".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hypothetical large planet in the far outer Solar System. This article is about the hypothetical planet first suggested in For other uses, see Planet Nine disambiguation.

Not to be confused with the hypothetical Planet X first proposed in by Percival Lowell. Nice model , Five-planet Nice model , and Planetary migration.

The extreme trans-Neptunian object orbits. Effects of Planet Nine on trans-Neptunian objects. If M were equal to 0. Hence, even though they would show preference for a particular apsidal direction, they would not exhibit true confinement like the data.

In the Nice model 20—50 Earth masses is estimated to have been ejected, a significant mass is also ejected from the neighborhoods of the giant planets during their formation.

For comparison, the Hubble Space Telescope has detected objects as faint as 31st magnitude with an exposure of about 2 million seconds hours during Hubble Ultra Deep Field photography.

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